Origins of Crop Circles

Crop circle formed at Bracciano, Italy, May 20, 2012. A large (6.0 magnitude) earthquake shook northern Italy the morning the crop circle was discovered. A spree of earthquakes followed throughout the Mediterranean and extended into the Middle East after the first-ever crop circle in Iran was reported June 12, 2012. See Bracciano Crop Circle Analysis and Global Earthquake Spree


Photos and investigation of Bracciano, Italy crop circle, May 20, 2012, by Marina Sassi.

Mystery in the Crops

Circle and ring designs made by alternating standing and flattened crops began proliferating in Wiltshire, England in the 1970s.  Early investigators called the mysterious designs crop circles because initially they were all circular.  The name caught on and has persisted despite changing designs.  In less than 40 years crop circles have appeared on all continents and more than 200 countries in increasingly complex designs and arrays.

A flood of crop circles involving numerous origins worldwide have been reported since 1970.  TimeStar focuses research on crop circles that provide insight into changing conditions of the Earth with a high probability of mysterious origin, which are not humanly made.

Historically, crop circles have been reported for centuries in England, America and Africa.  African shaman Credo Mutwa wrote about crop circles in his book, Isilwane, The Animal, "Tales and Fables of Africa."

The sacred fields were ploughed far from the ordinary millet, maize and corn, as they were left unfenced.  Over centuries, people had discovered that the star gods sometimes communicated with human beings through these sacred fields.  Time and again, strange circular depressions were seen in the centre of these fields.  These depressions were called Izishoze Amatongo, the great circles of the gods.

These circles were an amazing sight to see.  The gods never cut the stalks of corn or millet when they form these depressions.  It appears as though a great circular, disk-shaped force has descended on the field.  It pressed the corn firmly into the ground, without breaking the stalks or damaging the plants.  Then the force appears to spin, resulting in the strange spiral appearance of the fallen stalks.  Words cannot describe such a phenomenon, which I have seen more than thirty times in the course of my life as a traditional healer.  Whenever a circle appeared in the fields, the people rushed to erect a fence of poles around the circle.  They would dance and perform other sacred rituals honouring the star gods and the Earth Mother.
All the kings and chiefs awaited the arrival of these circles.  The appearance would be cause for celebrations that lasted several days.  These celebrations were accompanied by prayers to the gods to watch over the people and to talk to them through the sacred circles.

Crop circle formed at Bracciano, Italy on May 20, 2012 depicted Parker spiral that predicts solar wind and the heliosphere.  An unpredicted interplanetary magnetic storm brushed the Earth’s magnetosphere minutes before a 6.0 magnitude earthquake near Bracciano hours before the crop circle was discovered.

Crop circles derive from a number of origins, which may combine into complex relationships.  For the sake of brevity, formations of mysterious origin with anomalous characteristics in the crops are abbreviated as ACF.  Designs made by human crop artists are identified as HCA; and mechanical planking is shortened to MP.

1. Gaia

Signs of high heat in crop circles, also called cereal circles, eerily echo the Homeric Hymn to Demeter.  The Greek gods Zeus and Hades were Demeter’s brothers, and all were the children of the older Titans that Zeus overthrew.  While Demeter’s daughter Persephone was playing in a field, a magical flower caught her attention.  At that instant Hades, in his chariot, descended on Persephone and abducted her to his domain in the underworld.  (Hades’ underworld had no relationship to the hell that later developed in Judeo-Christian mythology.)  Hades was associated with souls of the dead in a domain like any other domain the Greek gods possessed. 

Desolate, Demeter, dressed like an old woman and refusing to care for the crops, searched the world of humans for Persephone.  She was eventually engaged by a human king to care for his only son, an infant.  At night Demeter would place the infant boy in the fire without harm, and he thrived in her care.  One night the child’s mother came into the room while Demeter held him in the fire, and the mother screamed at the sight.  The child started to cry and the mother took him from Demeter. 

Demeter told the mother she could have given the boy immortality, but the mother had ruined his opportunity.  Bear in mind that Demeter had been holding the boy in the fire when he thrived, and he cried only when his mother burst into the room and took the child away from Demeter. 

During the time Demeter searched for Persephone, the crops failed throughout the kingdom.  Humans were not able to make offerings to Zeus without crops, and Zeus was forced to negotiate with Demeter for Persephone’s return.  When Hades learned that he must return Persephone, he gave her a pomegranate seed to eat.  Persephone accepted and ate the seed.  The first question Demeter asked Persephone when she returned was if she had eaten anything Hades had given her, and Persephone lied.  She said she had not eaten anything.  Because Persephone had eaten the seed, she was required to return to the underworld six months of each year, and became a powerful queen of Hades.

Demeter chose to remain in the human world and teach the mysteries of immortality.  She founded the first mystery school in the town of Eleusis, where the Elysian Mysteries of immortality were given to humans.  Demeter’s school was open to all, but initiates into the mysteries were vowed to secrecy. 
The fire in which the infant boy thrived is the critical point of the goddess’ story.  The child was not harmed or alarmed until his biological mother took him from the goddess Demeter; he had the potential to withstand the fire that would have made him immortal, had his mortal mother not taken him back to the mortal world with her.  The symbolic seed that Hades gave to Persephone, thus requiring her return to Hades every year, parallels Demeter’s fire in terms of quantum entanglement that connects identities beyond mechanical limits of space.  Entanglement and non-locality are two key features of quantum mechanics. 

High heat applied to crop circles cause changes in vegetation, including crystalline cell changes.  It changes heritable traits in future generations of crops.  Electrical and magnetic variations are common in crop circles with mysterious origin.  Various theories have been offered to explain the heat source that alters the crops, including plasma and balls of light.  The sources of heat associated with authentic crop circles remain as elusive as the secrets of immortality that Demeter taught.

Intelligence in Nature that shapes order and form was well recognized in antiquity; in ancient Greece as well as Native America intelligence was recognized as the spirit of the Earth.  The Greeks called the intelligent spirit of the Earth Gaia and Native Americans revered it as Mother Earth, the mother of life on Earth.  Greek gods recognized the power of Nature's mind in the intelligent essence that directed the body of a river in Homer's Iliad.  The spirit they called Xanthus and the river's body they called Scamander.  In the Iliad, Homer wrote that Xanthus, the god or spirit of the river, rose up to protest Achilles clogging its channels with corpses he had slain.  Achilles agreed to stop throwing bodies into the river but not to stop killing.  When he heard the river’s plea for help, Achilles attacked the river.  The river dragged Achilles downstream to a floodplain and nearly killed him.  Only the gods' setting the plain on fire and boiling the river's water until it released him saved Achilles. 

Powers wielded by initiates and masters of all traditions originate in the intelligence of Nature's mind, capable of vast imagery in naturalistic designs that reflect conditions of the phenomenal world.  The shapes that emerge from Nature's mind vary as causative factors change, thus they may appear different from older forms, or anomalous.  In actuality, what may seem extraordinary or anomalous to humanly constructed perception is newly emerging aspects of Nature's power reflecting changing states.

Small, randomly-placed circles called dragon's footprints appeared in Wiltshire before the modern crop circle period began.  They give a whimsical impression that a dragon might have walked through the field.  These are formed entirely from Earthian and non-human intelligence.

A circle is the most powerful shape in nature, and symbolizes not only power but wholeness.  A central circle with four satellite circles was among the earliest crop circle designs in modern England, as well as the most common symbol of ancient Mexico's shamanic culture.  This geometry was the basis of the Star glyph from the Mayan calendar at Chichen Itza in southeast Mexico.  This symbol was the emblem for both Inanna in Sumer and the Feathered Serpent in Mexico.  In ancient cultures, shamans served as intercessors with non-human intelligences in ethereal or supernal realms.  Over generations, Earth's rich shamanic heritage discovered and memorialized Nature's language and transmitted this knowledge to future generations in symbolic systems that transcended written language in oral traditions.  Direct experience with Nature, the supernatural and ethereal realms is the threshold of this knowledge.

Intuition, process, and form are the medium and the message of those crop circles that directly originate in Nature.  An initiate of the Egyptian mysteries, Plato cautioned about constructions of written language in Phaedro:

"If men learn this [written language], it will implant forgetfulness in their souls; they will cease to exercise memory because they rely on that which is written, calling things to remembrance no longer from within themselves, but by means of external marks.  What you have discovered is a recipe not for memory, but for reminder.  And it is no true wisdom that you offer your disciples, but only its semblance, for by telling them of many things without teaching them you will make them seem to know much, while for the most part they know nothing, and as men filled, not with wisdom, but with the conceit of wisdom, they will be a burden to their fellows."

Phaedo in Greek means: “the shining one” or “the brilliant one.”  It derives from the verb “faino”, which itself derives from the word for light, “fos.”

2. Balls of Light and UFO

Crop pictures with inexplicable phenomena are often associated with balls of light and/or UFOs in the vicinity.  The larger designs commonly displaying symbolism from Earth's many cultures comprise the majority of crop circles studied.  Their elegance, ingenuity, fluid lay of crop, electromagnetic anomalies attracted researchers to crop circles before human crop art (HCA) proliferated.  Often associated with balls of light and UFOs, anomalous crop circles may represent collaboration of multiple sources and intelligences.  A number of unique characteristics distinguish anomalous crop circles from human-made crop art:

• Elongated apical plant stem nodes (stretching of the first node beneath the seed-head) is the most reliable visible plant change documented by the scientific research which indicates a cause other than mechanical flattening.

• Expulsion cavities (holes blown out usually at the lower plant stem nodes) are the second most reliable visible plant change shown by the scientific research to be related to non-mechanically-flattened crop.

• Stunted, malformed seeds and serious germination abnormalities are another scientifically-proven effect of the crop circle energy system.

• Marked bending of plant stems at the nodes—if present immediately after a crop circle has formed—may also be an indicator of authenticity; however, bending can also be caused by natural plant recovery processes, particularly in young, vigorously-growing crop, thus making this visible plant change one that must be very carefully evaluated.

These physical changes to crop circle plants and to the reproductive capability of the seeds from these plants vary among crop formations, due in part to the various species of plant involved, its growth phase and the precise composition and intensity level of the various energies involved.  (ref:

3. Commercial and Mechanical Planking by Humans

Self-professed hoaxers Doug Bower and Dave Chorley stated they had started the phenomenon in 1978 by making circles in crops with boards and ropes.  They proceeded to make a crop circle in one hour after announcing they had come up with the idea while drinking in a pub.  Their creation, however, had none of the inexplicable characteristics identified above in the first and second types.  They succeeded in crudely flattening crop with boards and gaining notoriety.

Colin Andrews reported an effort to discredit crop circles with Operation Blackbird in the early 1990s.  One of the mysteries of human-made crop art is the lack of arrests for damaging farmer's fields.  Freddy Silva reports that some artists pay farmers for using their fields.  At least one person has been prosecuted for property damage to farmers' crops.  Matthew Williams was arrested and confessed to planking and stomping crop circles in the Dave and Doug style.  Williams reported that he confessed his crimes to the court and made an agreement.  He was able to speak publicly about formations he had crafted because they were covered by his agreement with the court.  In 2010 he publicly spoke about crop circles he had made in the 1990s and subsequently launched an internet television channel dealing with human-made crop circles.

Crop circle conferences, tours, clubs, books, DVDs, and calendars boomed.  A market demand arose which vendors were able to meet by making their own formations.  Some researchers estimated that 95-99% of crop circles made in Wiltshire, England, in 2010 were human fabrications.

Wiltshire took a lead role as the crop art capital of the world, with estimated revenues in excess of 500,000 British pounds in 2010.  (Approximately $810,000 US.) That's a great deal of annual revenue for a cottage industry reportedly dreamed up in a pub! Crafty creatures of the marketplace, some crop art makers also lay claim to special, if not divine, inspirations in their creations.  Some say they seek to complete what nature has left incomplete. 
Long-time researcher Freddy Silva reported numerous crop circle hoaxes in Wiltshire in an interview about his 2011 book, Common Wealth: Our Legacy of Places of Power and the Transfiguration of the Human Soul.  He suggests that crop circles as a phenomenon have moved away from Wiltshire and into other parts of the world.  Silva reported that after he published information about ACF that appeared on naturally occurring lei lines, hoaxers began to make crop art in the same locations he had named.  Crop art makers have improved their skills with experience, and many hoaxed crop pictures are impressive to casual and inexperienced observers; but, with 30 years of experience, Silva reports hoaxing details that casual observers overlook. 
Psychic capacities are part and parcel of the human experience, and it is well within the realm of possibility that a crop circle hoaxer could receive "channeled" information.  The hoaxers' abilities to translate channeling into the physical characteristics of a crop circle, at best, vary on a case-by-case basis.  People are inspired with intuition and messages daily, but their execution of inspired information remains within the range of the knowledge, skills and abilities as a set of human construction.

4. Mechanical Planking after Anomalous Crop Pictures Form

Astronomer Carl Sagan wrote a letter to the United Kingdom's Ministry of Defense about official efforts to destroy real crop circles and create hoax replicas in 1996.  Sagan's March 6, 1996 letter was posted on Linda Moulton Howe's on December 7, 2012.  Dr. Sagan wrote to the U.K.  Ministry of Defence:

“Evidence has been uncovered showing some farmers have been paid considerable sums of money to destroy the real crop circles when they appear, and groups encouraged to then make hoaxed replicas.”

Anomalous crop circles that have been altered as Carl Sagan discovered are sometimes found, especially in England.  After an anomalous crop circle forms, mechanical boarding may be done over the top of it, additional features that "go nowhere" are hoaxed, or the entire formation may be destroyed and a clumsy replica hoaxed.  Signs of overboarding were reported by early crop circle investigators but only suspected in some cases.  The June 2, 2010, crop circle at Liddington Castle, Wiltshire, demonstrates the confusion created by overboarding.

Together with other indicators, I used the high precipitation and extreme temperature changes observed at the Liddington Castle crop picture to forecast cooler-then-average temperatures and high levels of precipitation for 2011

Major floods and snowfall dominated the winter and spring in areas worldwide, notably Australia, Indonesia, and the USA, along with cooler-than-average temperatures in winter 2010 and spring 2011.  Rainfall was so high worldwide in 2011 that sea levels dropped with water saturation on land.  Similar anomalies were not reported in any other Wiltshire crop circles in 2010.  Crop samples were not collected for testing from Liddington Castle, but the correlations between high rainfall and precipitation inside the circle suggest that an ACF was later overboarded at Liddington Castle.

A crop picture at Oliver’s Castle in England on August 16, 2008 demonstrates that information contained in an ACF can be altered and falsified but recovered.  The crop circle came to my attention in 2012 when the Mayan Ac Tah published his book on Mayan tradition, The Night of the Last Katun: 2012 Maya.  Ac Tah wrote about the importance of the lunar eclipse on August 16, 2008, and I searched for crop circles on that date.  Information about the Venus cycle gleaned from the formation was highly relevant to the Mayan calendar, but visible lines caused by mechanical planking were blatantly evident in photos.  I would have dismissed the crop circle based on the visible planking lines except for two points that could not be easily ignored: The extreme relevance of the Venus cycle to the Mayan calendar and the late-season date in mid-August the crop circle appeared.  Most profitable crop circle tours and conferences are completed by early August.  Commercial entrepreneurs have little to gain by investing in mechanically-made crop circles after the tourists leave.  Fortunately, Janet Ossebaard had done an on-site investigation and reported her findings.

Ossebaard found "construction lines (forming the backbone of the formation) but…only bits and pieces!"  Construction lines are used for mechanical planking by humans but do not appear in ACF where unbroken crop bends with high energy and heat.  She also found "more strange and totally unnecessary (from a geometrical point of view) underlying lines that seemed to be going nowhere.  Some of these even exceeded the perimeter of the formation!"  Some of the unnecessary lines that went nowhere were clumsy and nonsensical, thus discrediting the crop circle's construction and information, but it also contained anomalous features that defied mechanical planking.

In some areas Ossebaard found features of an ACF.  "The centre of the formation showed a stunning swirl where the 3 tracks joined together.  What struck me was the way the crop had swirled around the centre.  This was not necessary for the creation of the inner swirl, the crop could have simply been pushed straight forward to meet in the middle and be twisted into a central bundle.  In reality however, the outer right side of the tracks flowed toward the left as they reached the central point, thus creating a river-like flow of 3 streams meeting and swirling into each other as if to form a clock-wise vortex, a twister of stalks and seed heads." She found large downed areas where "the crop had gone down in a hexagonal way, as can clearly be seen on some of my pole shots...The hexagonal shape of the formation itself was repeated in the swirls of the triangle tips, like a hologram or a fractal: repeating itself into the finest details, into infinity..."

Mechanical construction and anomalous features were mixed in the formation.  This suggested an effort to destroy and hoax over an ACF after it was discovered, as Carl Sagan had reported in his 1996 letter.

Crop circle profiteers are more likely to mechanically construct crop pictures to bring tourist business to Wiltshire.  Altering and defacing an ACF does not serve the tourist industry.  Destroying ACF and making clumsy replicas discredits the intelligence and capabilities of the mysterious Circle Makers, thus minimizing competition for loyalty to established authority.

Various sequences of designs and locations of crop circles within specific periods of time appear to relate to each other through certain conditions of the earth.  As earth's conditions change over time crop circles and sets of crop circles change.

Mutwa, Credo.  1996.  Isilwane, The Animal.  South Africa:  Struik Publishers

Crop Circle Connector Archives.

Intelligence and Design

Circle of burned sunflowers in Argentina reported March 15, 2010.
First crop circle of 2011 at Yogyakarta, Java on January 23.
Circle formed north of the oldest pyramids in North America at Teotihuacan, reported March 20, 2011.

Anomalous crop circles may convey information independently of any related landmark but may, as well, relate information with strategic relationships. A repetitive pattern of simultaneous earthquakes at crop circle sites preceded a history-making fracture of a tectonic plate. The journal Nature (September 26, 2012) announced the Indo-Australian tectonic had started breaking up and forming a new tectonic boundary following two earthquakes on April 11, 2012.

The pattern of simultaneous quake at crop circle sites made in 2010 and 2011 was evident a full year before the plate fractured. On April 26, 2011 simultaneous quakes shook areas where of crop circle sites in Indonesia, Mexico and Argentina. Simultaneous quakes again shook areas near the same three regions where crop circles had been made on April 11, 2012 when the plate fractured west of Sumatra in Indonesia.

The first crop circle of the set form a circle of burned sunflowers in Argentina, reported March 15, 2010, the year the ozone hole reached its smallest size in 25 years. A smaller ozone hole holds in heat closer to the planet and may have unintended consequences of higher temperatures. When solar activity declined in the x-ray and ultraviolet bands in 2010 to the extent that is caused the thermosphere (where heat is held in our atmosphere) to shrink, global temperatures continued to climb.

Soon after crop circle was made at Yogyakarta, Java on January 23, 2011 was the second crop circle in the set. Several volcanoes erupted in the region within weeks of the crop circle's appearance.

Nine days after the 9.0 magnitude quake that caused Japan's shore to move eight feet and opened a 20,000 foot fissure east of its coast, the third circle in the set was made March 20, 2011. Within weeks after the Mexican crop circle, an underwater volcano on the Axial Seamount off Oregon's coast erupted in April. Lava from the eruption covered the U.S. Geological Survey's sensors, so the exact date is not known.

In 1993 each of two crop circles in the USA displayed markers pointing to magnetic north. A marker in one circle pointed to Siberia. Together the crop pictures formed a triangle with the Pyramids at Teotihuacan. Within one year after the crop circles formed, magnetic north began moving at a very rapid pace, relative to its century-long pattern of movement. Earth's magnetic fields are generated by the planet's core, which may be responsive to a multitude of conditions including global temperature. Magnetic north had moved from its historical position north of the Great Lakes so rapidly it was approaching Siberia by 2010, and was far west of its 1993 position. 

Although crop circles have been reported for hundreds of years in England, the USA and elsewhere, they first proliferated in number and complexity in the 1970s near the Stonehenge megaliths in England. A complex astronomical observatory, Stonehenge is situated on a hub of powerful alignments of ancient monuments and geographical features. At the time crop circles first appeared near Stonehenge, signs of heating were becoming apparent in the solar system. The ozone hole was detected while the modern crop circle spree was in its infancy.

Global warming of Neptune and Pluto, suggesting systemic heating of the solar system, was observed as satellite technology improved in the 1980s. In the decade after crop circles began proliferating a hypothesis of Earth's global warming exacerbated by the greenhouse gases humanly introduced into Earth's atmosphere came into the forefront of political debate.

Rapid melting evident at the Antarctic exceeded all scientific wisdom about the ice caps. By 1997 icebergs had started to break away from the Antarctic as the ice cap melted. By 2010 rising sea levels resulting from melting ice were already submerging islands. Post-modern crop circles displaying signs of high heat near an ancient astronomical observatory at the hub of power Earthian energy lei lines cannot be dismissed easily. Yet only a small number of independent researchers have examined the phenomenon with scientific integrity commensurate with its importance to human civilization. 

We must ask how, if at all, the brief period of intense heating that began in the 1970s and growing levels of seismic and volcanic activity followed by a change in our sun has affected the Earth's environment, magnetic north and appearances of anomalous crop circles. Answers to these questions in are in the nature of anomalous and UFO-related crop circles.


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